Mount Bromo (Indonesian: Gunung Bromo), is an activevolcano and part of the Tengger massif, in East Java, Indonesia. At 2,329metres (7,641 ft) it is not the highest peak of the massif, but is the mostwell known. The massif area is one of the most visited tourist attractions inEast Java, Indonesia. The volcano belongs to the Bromo Tengger Semeru NationalPark. The name of Bromo derived from Javanese pronunciation of Brahma, theHindu creator god.
Mount Bromo sits in the middle of a vast plain called the"Sea of Sand" (Javanese: Segara Wedi or Indonesian: Lautan Pasir), aprotected nature reserve since 1919. The typical way to visit Mount Bromo isfrom the nearby mountain village of Cemoro Lawang. From there it is possible towalk to the volcano in about 45 minutes, but it is also possible to take anorganised jeep tour, which includes a stop at the viewpoint on Mount Penanjakan(2,770 m or 9,088 ft) (Indonesian: Gunung Penanjakan). The best views fromMount Bromo to the Sand Sea below and the surrounding volcanoes are at sunrise.The viewpoint on Mount Penanjakan can also be reached on foot in about twohours. From inside the caldera, sulfur is collected by workers.
Depending on the degree of volcanic activity, theIndonesian Centre for Vulcanology and Disaster Hazard Mitigation sometimesissues warnings against visiting Mount Bromo. The list of outstanding warningsmay be consulted at the Indonesian-language website of the Centre.
On the fourteenth day of the Hindu festival of YadnyaKasada, the Tenggerese people of Probolinggo, East Java, travel up the mountainin order to make offerings of fruit, rice, vegetables, flowers and sacrificesof livestock to the mountain gods by throwing them into the caldera of thevolcano. The origin of the ritual lies in the 15th century legend where aprincess named Roro Anteng started the principality of Tengger with herhusband, Joko Seger. The couple were childless and therefore beseeched theassistance of the mountain gods. The gods granted them 24 children butstipulated that the 25th child, named Kesuma, must be thrown into the volcanoas human sacrifice.
The gods' request was implemented. The tradition ofthrowing sacrifices into the volcano to appease these ancient deities continuestoday and called Yadnya Kasada ceremony. Though fraught with danger, somelocals risk climbing down into the crater in an attempt to recollect thesacrificed goods that believed could bring them good luck.
On the Segara Wedi sand plain sits a Hindu temple calledPura Luhur Poten. The temple holds a significant importance to the Tenggeresescatter across the mountainous villages such as Ngadisari, Wonokitri, Ngadas,Argosari, Ranu Prani, Ledok Ombo and Wonokerso. The temple organized annualYadnya Kasada ceremony which lasts for about one month. On the 14th day, theTenggerese will congregate at Pura Luhur Poten to ask for blessings from IdaSang Hyang Widi Wasa and God of Mahameru (Mount Semeru). Then the mass willproceed along the crater edges of Mt Bromo where offerings will be thrown intothe crater. The major difference between this temple with the Balinese ones arethe type of stones and building materials. Pura Luhur Poten uses natural blackstones from volcanoes nearby, while Balinese temples mostly made from redbricks. Inside this pura, there are several buildings and enclosures aligned inMandala zone composition.
Mount Bromo erupted in 2004, that eruptive episode led tothe death of two people
On Tuesday, 23 November 2010, 16.30 WIB (WesternIndonesian Time), the Indonesian Centre of Vulcanology and Geology HazardMitigation (CVGHM) confirmed the activity status of Mount Bromo at"alert" due to increasing tremor activity and shallow volcanicearthquakes at the mountain. Concerns were raised that a volcanic eruption maybe likely to occur. As a precaution local residents and tourists wereinstructed to remain clear of an area within radius three kilometres from thecaldera and refugee encampments were erected. The area surrounding the Teggeracaldera of Bromo remained off limits for visitors throughout the remaining partof 2010.
Bromo started to erupt ash on Friday 26 November 2010.
On 29 November 2010 Transport Ministry spokesman BambangErvan announced that Malang's domestic airport, would be closed until 4December 2010. Malang a city of about 800,000 people is about 25 km (16 mi)west of Mount Bromo. Abdul Rachman Saleh Airport IATA:MLG normally handles 10daily domestic flights from the capital Jakarta. Government volcanologistSurono reported that the volcano was spitting columns of ash some 700 metres(2,300 feet) into the sky.
The Tengger Caldera was still active in late January 2011,the activity being characterised by fluctuating ongoing eruptions. On 23January 2011 the Indonesian Centre for Volcanology and Geological HazardMitigation (CVGHM) (Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi) reportedthat since 19 December, 2010 volcanic ash and incandescent material had beenthrown up by eruptive activity resulting in a heavy rain of material that fellaround the crater. Continuous eruptions on 21 January caused a thin ash fallmainly in the village areas of Ngadirejo and Sukapura Wonokerto in Probolinggodistrict. The impact of a heavy rain of volcanic ash from eruptions since 19December 2010 resulted in disruption of normal activities. By early 2011concerns were being raised concerning the effect upon the local economy and thepotential for long term environmental and health problems amongst the residentsin the locality surrounding Mount Bromo. Due to high seasonal rainfall inJanuary 2011 the potential for lahar and lava flow was raised due to thedeposits of volcanic ash, sand and other ejected material that had built up.Seismic activity was dominated by tremor vibration and reports of visualintensity and sounds of eruption continued to be reported from the mountainmonitoring facility, Bromo Observation Post. People living on the banks of thePerahu Ravine, Nganten Ravine and Sukapura River were alerted to thepossibility of lava flows, especially when it was raining heavily in the areaaround Cemorolawang, Ngadisari and Ngadirejo. Eruptions and volcanic tremorswere reported on 21 January and 22 January with activity subsiding on 23January 2011. On 23 January, 2011 at 06:00 am the alert status at Mount Bromoremained at (Level III).
On 23 January 2011 an exclusion zone was recommended forcommunities living around Mount Bromo. Tourists and hikers were to advised notto come within a radius of 2 km from the active crater. CVGHM stated that theyexpected warning signs to be installed stating the limit radius of 2 km fromthe crater. Operational caution was recommended for flights into and leavingJuanda International Airport IATA:SUB in Surabaya. CVGHM recommended theestablishment of public areas for the provision of face masks and eyeprotection. CVGHM also issued a warning to residents to be cautious of ashbuild up on roofs and other places that may give cause for collapse under theburden of ash.
Further eruptions and the issuing of Aviation Ashadvisories on 27 January and 28 January 2011 led to concerns being raisedregarding a volcanic ash plume, reported to be drifting eastward toward the aircorridors used to access the Ngurah Rai International Airport IATA:DPS in Bali.Airport official Sherly Yunita was reported at the time as stating thatconcerns about visibility had prompted Singapore Airlines, Jetstar-ValueAir,Air France-KLM, Virgin Blue and Cathay Pacific to cancel several flights toBali, 340 km (210 mi) to the east.SilkAir also cancelled flights on the 27January between Singapore and Lombok, an island to the east of Bali. TheVolcanic Ash Advisory Centre in Darwin, Australia released several Code RedAviation Ash Advisories pertaining to Mount Bromo (Tengger Caldera), on 27January. They indicated that ash was observed at altitudes up to 18,000 ft(FL180) extending 200 nautical mi to the south east of the caldera. In other ashadvisories of that day the cloud was reported as at times having a 10 km/hdrift, both to the east, and to the south east.
The Indonesian Centre for Volcanology and GeologicalHazard Mitigation (CVGHM) reported on 13 January 2011, that deformation usingtiltmeter measurements indicated an inflation at rate of 5 micro radiansbetween 25 November 2010 and 14 December 2010 and a relatively stable since 15December, 2010 both on Radial Components and Tangential Components.
Deformation measurement using EDM compared observations atdesignated measuring points; POS-BRO, POS-KUR and POS-BAT during the period 25November 2010 - 20 December 2010 with observations from the period 21 December2010 - 30 December 2010 indicated the shortening of the distance from thePOS-BAT, or inflation. Observations between 30 December 2010 to 23 January 2011were reported as relatively stable.
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Ditulis oleh: iwansky - Jumat, 02 Desember 2011