pewayang of art to the theater art

Someargument  that "Pewayangan is not ofTheatreArts." 

 So, conventions, methods, andapproaches to study and work on Art pewayangan to be distinguished byconvention, methods, and approaches to study, and work on Theatre Arts. Their opinions are legitimate. As effective and valid opinionsstating that instead Dramatic Arts Theatre, but the Literary Arts. Assessment or study of TheatreArts are beyond the conventions and literary approach, but remained within thestudy of art - The art which one? Is not literature, includingdrama, as well as art, literary art? Some argue that the Arts Dramaand Theatre Arts, including the field of Fine Arts. While others argue that the Artsincluding Art Arsitekstur field. There is the impression that thepuppet Arts equated or confused with puppetry art, so that at some universitiesuse the name of the Department of Art puppetry, not the Department of puppet. Opinions should be supported byreasons and concepts clear, and obvious reference so as not to cause anyconfusion and obscurity.

In this paper, Art pewayangan includedas a performance art. He is a Theatre Arts,'Traditional Theatre' which will always have the reform and transformation aswell as the traditional arts of others, and also art, contemporary art,including 'Contemporary Theatre'. Traditional art is not art thathas been stagnant, raw, and frozen. He continues to experiencegrowth or even a change in tune with the transformation in all sectors, withoutexception the field of culture and art, particularly

 Art pewayangan or pewayangan of art. But on the contrary, the artscan enrich the tradition of modern art (see Renda 1983:3). Thus, the concept of TheatreArts is not only able to contribute to the development of puppet art, but alsocan to be practice  into it.
Theatre is the product of a process of creation ofdramatic art into the art theater, or can be abbreviated to 'the theater'. As the theater, Theatreexistence refers to the 'formula dramaturgy'. The term 'dramaturgy' itselffree of the Dutch language 'dramaturgie', meaning the doctrine of the dramaticarts (Leer van de dramatische Kunst), or from English 'dramaturgy', meaning artor technique of writing drama and presentation in the form of theater. In short can be called 'the artof theater "(the art of the theater) (Harymawan 1988: iii).
Safian Hussain et al. in Literature Glossary Glossary(1988:69) mentions that 'dramaturgy' is a dramatic composition or dramatic art,namely technical elements used in the writing of drama. Elements of sound and motionelements lakuan or are two important elements among other important elements inthe drama. And this is what distinguishesbetween the technique of writing drama or play with other literary types,namely prose (novels or short stories) and poetry.

Dramaturgyapproach (approache dramaturgique), which in France pioneered and developed byJacques Scherer, aims to explain how a playwright uses the framework of aspecific form and specific procedures in writing (Scherer 1980:5, in Bachmid1990:26).

The meaning of formulas or'formula dramaturgy' above is a process (penjadian) theater that includes 4M,ie
(1) imagining (in the form ofideas);
(2) Creating or Writing (in theform of dramatic scripts, dramatic text, or text story);
(3) Exhibiting or shew (in theform of text or art theater performances); and
(4) Watching, Watching (possiblyin the form of comments, reviews, reviews, criticism, study, or research).

The difference of the term'drama' and 'theater', as the creative process of art, can be seen in pairs thefollowing characteristics (see Tennyson 1967:1; Satoto 1991:6-25).

*Drama theater, puppet

    * Play (plays, theatrical)performance (performances, performances)

    * Script (a script, can form asketch), production (production)

    * Dramatic text (dramatic text)Perfomance text (show text)

    * Author (author) direction(director, dalang) caracter (character) actor / actress, dalang (played by pewayangan)

    * Creation (creation) interpretation(interpretations, by a puppeteer)

    * Theory (theory) theimplementation (implementation)

Based on thecomparison above, it appears that
(1) drama is more of a storythat has not staged;
(2) a script or a play script(whatever they may be) that have not been produced;
(3) dramatic text which stillmust obtain a level of perfection in the text show, so that all types ofperforming arts should be the context with the public (audience);
(4) the creation, ideas, orideas the author (in script plays) that within certain limits still must beinterpreted by the director (puppeteer) and all theater workers tomementaskannya;
(5) of the characters indramatic texts, or actors in performances that are still empty text must obtainthe function and role (by the director or the puppeteer), so that everycharacter in every story has the characteristics of each.


Now,both conceptually, especially when seen from the form or shape, style,cultivating, and or pementasannya, we are increasingly difficult to distinguishand which defines a work of art the most entitled to claim or called classicaltheater, traditional theater, folk theater, theater regional, local theater,national theater, theater of Indonesia, western theater, modern theater, orcontemporary theater. It happened because the kinds oftheater are equally developed and / or paradigm shift in tune with thetransformation and globalization of culture and art. Modern theater and contemporarytheater that some people suggest the inclusion of the convention (from) theWest, among others, the convention of writing the play script, while not usingtraditional theater. Which is also called the noblecivilization of art, which it is said, must be conserved (what?). Meanwhile, the value systemitself had been developed and / or changes. Javanese Wayang Kulit Purwa, forexample, is often called traditional theater adiluhung type that should beconserved (ass: philosophy, functions, conventions, doll form, shape, workingon, or style pergelarannya, or all?). If all that's true, then thepuppet art has been to deny the nature of art itself is creative andinnovative.

Inthe region of Indonesia, we know various types of theatrical art, commonlycalled 'traditional theater' (already mentradisi), 'theater people' (as closeto the people), or 'regional theater' (distinctively local.) Conventionally, local theater islimited to the performing arts that have a certain characteristic regions. Types of theater that is notcharacterized by regionalism is the Western theater. The main difference between theWestern theater and the theater area of ​​Indonesia isalways a play script written in the Western theater productions (Bandem &Murgiyanto, 1996:10).

It should be questioned aboutthe characteristics of certain regions where?
Language, style,garapnya, what geographical? Similarly, in reality now, thereis a modern theater that is assumed to Western theater but not using a scriptwritten plays, but with improvisation, improvisation and mini words orsketches, commonly called a mini theater or theater word primitive. For example, play Bib Bob(Renda), and play RE (Akhudiat).

Conversely, there are regionaltheater that uses a script written plays, and worked on the basis of Westernconventions. For example Kethoprak Glindingin Solo; kethoprak, wayang, or shadow puppets are staged and / or aired ontelevision, or

performed'in order'. Other examples are thetraditional arts that is experimental or exploratory spirit. What is wrong if the theaterdistrict or the traditional type of puppet theater use script written plays,translated into the language or not nondaerah, and worked on theatricalconventions (the West assumed?).

Such events are often alsocarried out for the Western theater is translated into local languages
​​inIndonesia, worked on the basis of conventions, style, and other forms, or thespirit of regional theater in Indonesia. Thus, regional characteristics(including local languages), script writing plays, and conventions used, indevelopment now, is not accurate enough as a differentiator between theRegional Theatres (in Indonesia), and Theatre West (not always the same withnon-Indonesian) , or Theatre ofTraditional and Modern Theatre.

Some examples of types of folktheater, regional theater, or a traditional theater in Indonesia are:
Nobility (North Sumatra); Randai(West Sumatra); Dermuluk (South Sumatra); Makyong, Mendu (Riau, WestKalimantan); Mamanda (South Kalimantan, East Kalimantan); Ubrug, Longser,

Bonjet(West Java); Lenong, Mask , traders (Batawi); Mansres(Indramayu); Sintren (Cirebon); Kethoprak (Yogya, Solo, Central Java, EastJava); Wayang (Leather or Purwa, People, Masks, Marionette, Sungging, Gedog,roe Kencana, Menak; Klitik or Krucil, StruggleLeather, Leather Kancil, Potehi, China, or Thithi, Beber, Madya, Tasripin,torch, spacecraft, Pancasila, Revelation) is spread almost all over Java;Dadung Awuk (Yogya); Kuda Lumping (Yogya, Solo, Central Java, Ponorogo, EastJava); Srandul (Central Java, East Java); Ludrug, Kentrung (East Java); DramaGong, Gambuh, Arja, Mask, Prembon (Bali); Mask Dalang (Klaten, Central Java,East Java ); Mask (WestJava, Central Java, East Java and Madura); Panji (West Java, Central Java, EastJava) (Satoto 1991:121-189).
Based on the examples above, it is clear that the art ofpuppet theater has the type most widely than those owned by other traditionaltheatrical arts. The number of types of puppettheater and groupings each observer could have been different. Kesamaanya, the kinds of puppettheater, respectively, have their own specifications and characteristics. The type and variety of puppettheater that will continue to grow and increase in number.


Why does the type and variety ofpuppet arts still continue to experience growth, even change, both in quantityand quality of his art when viewed in terms of the relevant insights puppetartists, conventions, methods, approaches, styles, and the cultivationtechniques used in the process of staging want to be pewayangan.
If the process of development puppets will continuewithout a hitch, what threats or sanctions, then it indicates that
(1) Art pewayanagan shows,including puppetry art (Art directing Plus), Karawitan Art / Music (good musicor sound), and Dance (spatial movement or lakuan) which conventionally aremajor components in addition to other important components Art puppet that build community,not a traditional art that stagnant, static, raw, and frozen, but dynamic andin tune with the development of community dynamics puppet as its public,without sacrificing the essence of Art puppet;
(2) The lovers and observers ofpuppets, guidance as puppets, puppet managers, thinkers puppets, puppet critic,researcher puppets, puppets and people in general as the public, not thetraditional people who fanatical will-establishment, while the generation of pewayangan artists to feel restless and agitated against build it

Gundono Slamet, S. Kar., Forexample, a young puppeteer removable fat nan STSI Surakarta, feel restless andanxious to see tight bond reliability of tradition, a handcuff grip-grip hisartistic creativity (Sanggit). He tried to apply theconventions of theatrical art has ever received, digaulinya, and dihayatinyainto the staging Puppet Suketnya.

Wayang Kulit of pewayanang  Purwa that have symbolic meaning andcharacteristics of raw, black and white was replaced with the dolls from Suket(grass, or mendong) which can be interpreted symbolically simplicity. Peoplewho face Karna Karna to clarify the attitude towards the Pandavas, especiallyMother Kunthi Bharatayudha War, did not haveto Krishna and Harjuna, but could Werkudara. Logically Werkudara more sensebecause it is quite possible to be irresolute or revenge for deaths due to gunsKunta Gatutkaca Danu released Karna Wijaya, Werkudara own brother, sons of mymother with Mrs. Kunthi.

Appearance in the world offiction and nonfiction Puppet structure Suket Gundono feels more theatrical andartistic than the scene Limbukan and Goro-Goro some mastermind who recentlybecame the arena of excessive veneration of the

responders,or who sponsored the funding pergelarannya, instead going harassment of workerspuppet theater, and audiencechoice, in order to grab market share.

Another example, staging puppetNggremeng Gundono in alap-alapan Surtikanthi a play by Goenawan Mohamad. There are no puppets, no gamelan(traditional). Gundono not the mastermind ofauthoritarian and single interpreter as usual Purwa Wayang Kulit performance. Puppet theater Nggremeng allworkers can interpret the play in accordance with the insight and appreciationof each power. Thus, the meaning of the play,as a work of fiction, can have various interpretations, such as what was raisedin the theory of deconstruction or postmodernism (Culler 1983). All workers Nggremeng Puppettheater also serves as a player, voice impersonator gamelan (pengrawit), evenas the mastermind though. They can relax eat, drink,smoking and joking about things that are actual and context with currentsocial, political, economic, legal, and defense that is becoming actual issues.Food, beverages, and cigaretteswere scattered in front of the players, ready to be a model or puppetwayangnya. Gondo Gundono followed histeacher, that the puppet story as a work of fiction can be visualized innonfiction, construed, or interpreted as a variety, even the interpretation ormeaning crazy though (postmodernism).


Based on what has been statedabove, it can be concluded that the contribution and the implementation of theconcept art of shadow puppet theater on the development of art can be relatedbelow.

First, the structure of thetheatrics, such as components puppeteer and puppetry arts (film director anddirecting techniques); character (figure), engineering character, actor andacting technique (the shadow puppets made by the mastermind of Sabet andconversation); dialogue (conversation, the puppet man performed by the cast), thestructure of space (the shadow puppets, tree bar and emblem color micro-andmacrocosm), and the structure of time (pathet, pengaluran, and pengadegan);mempotensikan all workers in a professional puppet theater and proportional (ora gamelan musician, wirasuara, stage manager, sound designer,lighting designer, stylist property or equipment, etc.) so that theircreativity can be rewarded professionally and proportionately based on theresults of their collective work with the mastermind, that is, not merely toobtain a reward from the puppeteer.

Second, the problem of interpretationof the play, Sanggit, and staging techniques. Dalang is not the only source ofthe interpreter and creator of the play, but also all workers puppet theater. For this purpose, in addition topuppeteer, puppet theater every worker should always increase the insight, thepower of appreciation, and the creativity of art puppets and puppetry art as anart collective.

Third, the need assessment andongoing research on the community puppets (including spectators, observers,observer, critic, researcher, and guidance as) as its public, becausedevelopment tends to be more heterogeneous.

Fourth, the problem ofperforming arts management, particularly management of traditional art, in thiscase purwa Javanese shadow puppet performance, in general is still anindividual company or industry in which the puppeteer as the sole equity ownerand sole leader as an employer who has the sole authority. While the workers (crew) shadowpuppet theater are his workers. These conditions can bereviewed, conducted research, and the best solution found so beneficial to allparties concerned with leather puppet prototype Java as an art collective andcomplex proportional and professional ..

Fifth, it is necessary,important, and urgent immediately sought and found the concept or theory ofpuppet art or art of puppetry, especially the cultivation techniques and / orstyle of puppet performances, for the sake of progress and development ofpuppet art itself.

Sixth, art criticism, especiallycriticism puppet art and / or the art of puppetry, not only needs to beinstitutionalized, but also need to get a decent portion and the opportunity toperform in accordance with the competencies critical critic, and the nature,meaning, and function of criticism.

DR. H. Soediro Satoto


    Bachmid, Talha, 1990. The spirit of 'Dérision' inContemporary Drama: A Review of comparative Two The play"vessels-vessels," Works arifin C Noer and"Rhino-Rhinoceros" The work of Eugène Ionesco. Dissertation. Faculty of Graduate UI Jakarta. Not yet published.

    Bandem, I Made & SalMurgiyanto. 1996. Regional Theatre of Indonesia. Jakarta: Pustaka Culture.

    Culler, Jonathan. 1983. Theory and Criticism afterstructuralism. London, Melbourne and Henley:Routledge & Kegan Paul.

    Harymawan, RMA. 1988. Dramaturgy. Bandung: CV Rosda.

    Hussain, Safian et al., 1996. Glossary Glossary Literature. Kuala Lumpur: Language andLiterature Board of Education Malaysia's Independence.

Renda.1983. Considering the tradition. Jakarta: PT Gramedia.

Satoto,Soediro. 1991a. Drama Assessment I. Surakarta: Eleven MarchUniversity Press.

    _____________ 1991b. Drama Assessment II. Surakarta: Eleven MarchUniversity Press.

    _____________ 1984. Wayang Kulit Purwa: Meaning andStructure Dramatiknya. Research. Yogyakarta: Project JavanologiRI Department of Education.

    ______________ 1998. Characters and characterizationsin Caturlogi Drama "Orchestra Madun" Work Arifin C. Noer. Dissertation. UI Graduate Program in Jakarta. Will be published.

    ______________ 1999a. Theatre Indonesia. Papers. Presented in Forum NationalSymposium. In the framework of the Festivaland MSPI Scientific Meeting 1999 on December 9 to 14 September 1999, atTirtagangga Karangasem Bali.

_______________1999b. Looking for the Reform EraFormat puppetry. Solopos loaded on September 30,1999, page 4.

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