Urakng Dayak is a native of mostly inhabit the hinterland of Kalimantan.
Territory settlement covers the entire island of Borneo, namely West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan and South Kalimantan. Besides, they inhabit the North Borneo territory which is now a federation of Malaysia and the Sultanate of Brunei Darussalam. Sub Dayak tribes who inhabited the area that is Dayak Murut who inhabit the region of East Malaysia, Sabah and northern part of Borneo Timur.1.
Name Dayak is the name for another resident who had no religion Islam.2. This name is sometimes used to distinguish the tribe who live in remote areas with ethnic Malays who inhabited the coastal areas. Besides, there is also the Dayak are Muslims, but they're still called Malays, so that the name is often used to distinguish the Dayak tribes who still embrace the original (Kaharingan), Protestant and Catholic, with people who converted to Islam.
Dayak tribes included in the Austronesian family who migrated to Southeast Asia between 2500 BC-1500 BC. Migration started from several regions around Yunnan, the area of South China, Yang Tse Kiang river, Mekhong and challenging. They headed through West Malaysia Indonesia later spread to Sumatra, Java, Bali and Kalimantan in part to that included in the Mongoloid race or have a match with the characteristics of race tersebut.3.
Dayak tribe migration takes place in a long period of time and differentiated into Proto-Malays (Melayu old) and Deutro-Melayu (Malay youth) to show their displacement wave. The first wave took place around the year 300 BC or Neolithikum era. The second wave after cultured metal then known as the tribe Dayak.4. Of the many tribes in Borneo, one of which is a sub tribe Dayak Kanayatn rich in traditional arts, especially music.
Kanayatn Dayak communities have different order of life or customs customs that run. Everything related to the customs is the ideal form of culture that were held in everyday life. He is a cultural system in which there are systems of norms and legal systems that guide life in society. They consider their own cultural systems that have high value, valuable, meaningful, important to be lived and run in life. Dayak communities also have a concept of God, wisdom to manage the forest in the traditional way, and the arts as a result of pouring a sense of aesthetic religious. All that considered a valuable heritage that must be preserved and passed back to the next generation.
Kanayatn Dayak Music is an important part of a ceremony. He not only has a role in life, but contains the religious values of society in accordance with the customs and beliefs adopted by the Dayak Kanayatn. The importance of music is not just limited to the fulfillment of the aesthetic satisfaction (entertainment) and the depiction of culture, but is believed to have functions, symbols, and cultural values in accordance with its position as a place of creativity and intellectual community. This is because the music covers understanding the integration process elements tradisional.5. This means that the elements of tradition in the life of the Dayak Kanayatn depicted in the music they had and considered to contain a particular symbol as a reflection of the lives they lead. He is the disclosure of the aesthetic value and emotional expression in accordance with the scope of culture.
Kanayatn Dayak music is one element of culture that was born from the intellect and interpreted together by the community owner. He is a cultural product that was born of social togetherness which is collective. He is also a container based on the creativity of the community with aesthetic values in which there is shared meaning system. This is because the rhythm of the music Dayak Kanayatn is the result of social processes rather than individual processes. This means that although the music was created by one person, but in its development, it is changing because society as a collective behavior of such music, then automatically the collective experience of meaning as well, according to the nature of community supporters.
Proximity to music with the life of the Dayak Kanayatn music affects a person can be said to interpret something that is felt and believed, or as container-related appreciative of life. He is the disclosure of symbols, values, and functions, so that the three elements to support the existence of music and give special meaning to people's lives.
Dayak music Kanayatn considered closely related to the context of cultural activity dilaksanakan.6. He is a realization of a concept of community thinking and behavior in accordance with the prevailing customs and traditions, so that everything contained in it is the owner transpormasi value of community life.
Kanayatn Dayak music is divided into two parts, the music associated with the worldly or profane music, such as Jonggan, and music associated with religious belief or who is often called the ritual music. The difference is the wasp Dau pattern as the main instrument, meant to determine the types of music can be heard through the sound Dau.7 game.
The rhythm of music as a whole is divided into eight sections, namely: (1) Rhythm Music Bagu, (2) Rhythm Music Bawakng; (3) Rhythm Music Jubata; (4) Rhythm Music Panyinggon; (5) Rhythms Music Sipanyakng Nails, (6) Rhythms Music Ngaranto; (7) The rhythm of music Dendo; and (8) Rhythm Totokng music. All wasps were used for the accompaniment of dance and the arts ensemble Jonggan or one Kanayatn Dayak traditional musical arts. Overall the music was born from the tradition of shamanism trusted and considered to have magical powers, so it is always used in the ceremony Baliatn, Balenggang, and Badendo.8.
Understanding the rhythm is not like understanding in Western music, namely as the strains of the tones that make up one or more integral part of a musical. Understanding the rhythm for the Dayak Kanayatn same motif played by the instrument wasps Dau, because of differences in rhythm with each other lies from wasp Dau. Besides, the Dayak Kanayatn not have specific naming of rhythm or beat of motives, it is possible they are taking the term in Western music, where "the same rhythm with the song. Understanding song here is not like the sense of the song intact, but the musical rhythms or motifs being played wasps. For example, when they want to play rhythm Jubata, they often call with Jubata song. From here it can be seen that the reference to the same rhythm with the beat of a song or motive by the Dayak Kanayatn Dau.
Most long musical motif Dayak Kanayatn consists of one bar, but there is also a fully charge two or more space-bar. Besides, among other motifs to each motif there are many similarities, especially the motives of wasps in a single clump. This is due to the variation of the beat pattern, such as reversal, narrowing, and widening pattern of rhythm and melody patterns. For example, the rhythm of music and Jubata Jubata Babulakng Pulakng rhythm patterns that have a common wasps Dau mind. As for the form of motive is explained in section IV.
Technological developments and the influx of modern art (popular) cause the Dayak people began to leave the traditional music culture slowly. This phenomenon can be seen with the outbreak of pop music that much-loved young people, compared to their traditional arts. In addition, the scarcity of documentation is because there are no written record of musical rhythms, with the exception of certain music in certain ceremonial contexts as well, causing the lack of public knowledge of the music. Although the rhythm of the music Dayak Kanayatn still used in some ceremonies and entertainment, but people do not understand the significance contained therein. Though the existence of such music as the basis for the musical tradition is very important Dayak Kanayatn known and studied for supporting the development of culture and community owners.
The meaning of existence Kanayatn Dayak music directing the public's understanding that the music it contains the value of philosophy and symbolic meaning of public life. This is because the rhythm of the music Dayak Kanayatn contain noble values as the embodiment of cultural reality. Any characteristic of public life reflected in it, then the music it represents the community's mind about the concepts of religion, customs, and behavior to be lived and studied as a guide their lives. He is the embodiment of indigenous values and traditions, therefore it can be said as a local cultural identity.
Deterioration of cultural values in society can influence the development of art music Dayak Kanayatn existence. Gradually the musical culture will disappear and be replaced with a new culture that did not support the development of culture and society. The loss of traditional music as well as the loss of identity and influential for the existence and development of society itself. When urakng Dayak loss of identity and culture, then, want to be called what they are.
Seeing this phenomenon, it is very important in documenting in writing to seek answers from some of the problems of music available in the community. This should be done so that people understand that the rhythm of the music Dayak Kanayatn can be used as the carrying capacity of the community and local development, so that people can see the importance of music as a discourse of science and knowledge for the development of creativity and intellect. This documentation is expected to grow and develop the awareness of society to put the rhythm of the music Dayak Kanayatn as one of the traditional arts in the right position to be lived, a reference, and supporting capacity development of other traditional arts.
B. Problem Formulation
The problem will be appointed in a written documentation should be limited to writing can be directed in accordance with specified plans and discussion. Restrictions of this problem can also facilitate the assessment of field data for more accurate and relevant, in accordance with the issues discussed. The problem in this documentation is limited to: (1) How musical rhythms function Dayak Kanayatn in ceremonies, symbols and values are contained in it. (2) How musical aspects contained in the Dayak music Kanayatn.
1.Mikhail Coomans, Dayak Man: In the past, Present, Future (New York: Scholastic, 1987), p. 53.
2.Ibid, p. 2.
3.Paulus Florus, ed., Culture Dayak: Actualization and Transpormasi (Pontianak: Institut Dayakologi, prints to-2, 2005), p. 86.
4.Ibid., Pp. 86-87.
Umar Kayam, Art, Tradition, Public (Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 1981), p. 58.
5.Krismus Purba, Tilhang Serindo Opera Batak: Toba Batak Binder Cultural Society in Jakarta (Yogyakarta: Kalika, 2002), p. 201.
Miden 6.Maniamas Sood, "Dayak Music Kanayatn and Creator" in Nico Julipin Andasputra and Vincent, ed., Observing Dayak Kanayatn (Pontianak: Institute of Dayakology Research and Development, 1997), P. 92.
7.Wawancara directly with Maniamas Miden Sood, Artist and Shaman Dendo, 17 April 2006, the DSN. Asong Pala, Ds. Aur Sampuk, Kec. Sengah Temila, Kab. Hedgehogs, West Kalimantan. Allowed to be quoted.
8.Alan P. Merriam, "The Anthropology of Music", as quoted in his book Ancient Krismus Tilhang Serindo Opera Batak: Toba Batak Binder Cultural Society in Jakarta, op.cit., P. 11.
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Ditulis oleh: iwansky - Selasa, 22 Maret 2011